Significant exposure to asbestos will increase the risk of asbestosis or mesothelioma and nonmalignant lung and pleural disorders, including asbestosis, pleural plaques, pleural thickening, and pleural effusions.
Because asbestos fibers are naturally occurring and extremely aerodynamic, virtually everyone has the potential to be exposed to asbestos. To be a significant health concern, asbestos fibers must be inhaled at high concentrations over an extended period of time. Asbestos fibers then accumulate in the lungs. As exposure increases, the risk of disease also increases. Therefore, measures to minimize exposure and consequently minimize accumulation of fibers will reduce the risk of adverse health effects.
As asbestos fibers accumulate in the lungs, several types of diseases may occur. Asbestosis is a scarring of the lung tissue. This scarring impairs the elasticity of the lung and hampers its ability to exchange gases. This leads to inadequate oxygen intake to the blood. Asbestosis restricts breathing leading to decreased lung volume and increased resistance in the airways. It is a slowly progressive disease with a latency period of 15 to 30 years.
The next type of disease attributed to asbestos exposure is Mesothelioma.
It is a cancer of the pleural lining. It is considered to be
exclusively related to asbestos exposure. By the time it is diagnosed,
it is almost always fatal. Similar to other asbestos related diseases,
mesothelioma has a longer latency period of 30 to 40 years.